The not-so-clinical skills

Placement allocation. A daunting prospect for all! There are, as always, disappointments. Many of these are for valid reasons, such as very similar/the same as another placement, too far away or you’ve experienced it as a service user/you worked there.

But I’ve noticed that many people (including myself previously!!!) get disappointed with placements if they aren’t “hands on” enough. But why?

We all enter into nursing for different reasons, and many of us will prefer “more clinical environments” than others. But does this mean that we should expect these placements throughout our studies? No! Because that wouldn’t reflect what nursing is!

Even with the nursing role changing, the non-clinical skills such as communication, leadership, delegation and teamwork will always be at the forefront of nursing. These skills may seem “soft”, but they are the bread and butter of our practice and are transferable across all jobs!

I’ll use an example of my own.  My first ever placement was on outpatients, and I was gutted! Most of my nursing friends were off living the dream on wards, whilst I was falling asleep in doctor’s consultations. The staff were lovely, but I wanted more! I was convinced that my time in outpatients was a write off, completely pointless to my nursing education. Surprise surprise, I was wrong! My listening skills improved greatly, and, since I spent so much time noting down words I did not understand, I learnt a lot about pathology. Whilst at the same trust later on in my degree, I was able to reassure patients and relatives about the outpatient clinic process. When I held someone’s hand during a painful procedure, I learnt how even the smallest of actions can make a difference. And I still fondly remember when I was present whilst someone was being told they were cancer free, and I cried with the patient and their mother. These experiences and lessons have stayed with me throughout my training, and I am so grateful for that!

Clinical skills can be taught at any time in your career, whether you are in your first year of training or you have been practising for 30 years. But the non-clinical skills, those are harder to teach. They require time, experience and reflection. And remember; your degree is the start of your learning, not the end!! 

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A brief Introduction to Oncology: Part I

Since graduating in September last year I’ve been working in Oncology, it’s been a steep learning curve and there’s still so much more to learn but I thought I’d share a few bits and pieces that might be useful background reading for anyone with an oncology placement coming up! Skip to the bottom of the page for a list of useful resources and a glossary of oncology terms.


Cell Biology Basics

Cancer can be defined as malignant uncontrolled growth from abnormal cell division. Before any new placement I found it useful to recap the relevant anatomy and physiology beforehand, therefore I thought it might be useful to include a mini recap of the basics of the cell cycle. If your oncology placement has a particular sub-speciality, for example haematology or gynaecology, you may also find it useful to revise the relevant body system.

cell cycle

Mitosis can be subdivided into 4 stages, prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase. G1 is when cellular contents (excluding chromosomes) are duplicated, S phase is where DNA is synthesised and duplicated and the G2 phase is when checking for errors in chromosome repair occurs, then the cells divide to produce two daughter cells. From G1, some cells may enter G0, a resting phase when cell division ceases.

Different cytotoxic drugs act on different parts of the cell cycle. As such you may find that different types of chemotherapy are given in combination to have a synergistic effect.

hallmarkswheel

The Hallmarks of Cancer, as described by Hanahan and Weinberg, illustrates the different types of mutations within carcinogenesis that enable survival and uncontrolled growth of cancer cells in tumours. Researchers can use these hallmarks as a focus for mechanisms of cytotoxic drugs. For example; Bevacizumab (Avastin), prevents angiogenesis so it slows the growth of new blood vessels, preventing the growth of this new vasculature supplying the tumour.

Cancer Staging

TNM staging is the most widely used clinical staging tool for solid tumours (does not apply to CNS tumours or haematological malignancies). It categorises the stage of the cancer with three simple alphanumeric codes corresponding to the categories of the primary tumour, involvement of lymph nodes and whether the cancer has metastasised. Prefixes and codes for additional modifiers can be added to give additional clinical information including details such as resection margins or specific histology of samples.

TNM staging

A number of disease group specific staging classifications are also used, a few you may come across are: Dukes (colorectal), Clarke & Breslow (melanoma), Lugano classification (lymphoma), Gleason score (prostate), and Robson staging system (renal cell carcinoma).

Communication

As with any placement area, communication is key! The following tools may be useful to recap  before starting your next placement.

SBAR

For acute situations the SBAR handover tool is great to clearly handover key clinical information. It provides structure to help you provide clear and concise information.

When exploring broader concerns with patients and relatives the Sage & Thyme communication tool can be really useful to help gather information and respond with empathy. Developed at UHSM in 2006 it can provide structure to responses in emotive situations, actively listening with the patient guiding the solution. (I’d also strongly recommend going on this course if you ever get the opportunity to go while on placement or in your future career.)

If you’re dealing with patients or relatives who wish to make a complaint the LASTED mnemonic can be useful to help structure a response but in your role as a student it’s best to escalate the situation to a member of staff; Listen, Acknowledge, Solve, Thank, Explain, Document.

IMG_5761

Source: Learning aid from Critical Care Department at Manchester Royal Infirmary

Body language, although non-verbal is an important communication tool. SOLER, SURETY and other similar models help illustrate the key components in effective non-verbal communication.

Last but not least, always remember to introduce yourself to patients and ask their permission before performing or observing any procedure! #hellomynameishello-my-name-is-logo-web

Palliative Care

From the latin Palliare, meaning ‘to cloak’, palliative care is essentially the relief of pain and associated symptoms without treating the underlying cause of the condition. You may come across this as ‘Best Supportive Care’ in a move away from negative connotations of palliative care in the media.

Dame Cecily Saunders was the founder of the hospice movement and a pioneer in palliative medicine. As increasing numbers of people began to die in a hospital environment rather than at home, she recognised the inadequacy of care and the fears of patients. Particularly regarding a terminal cancer diagnosis, where pain relief was insufficient due to the prevailing medical beliefs surrounding opiates. She led an evidence based medical and social change to provide holistic care encompassing physical, spiritual and psychological well-being in the last days of life.

Within palliative care you’ll gain exposure to pain management, controlling nausea and secretions, as well as learning how to manage other issues such as, constipation, terminal restlessness and spiritual distress. This will be in cases where a patient’s primary cancer has spread to other organs and is no longer considered curable, some patients may have a longer prognosis and better quality of life and others will have a much more limiting diagnosis so there can be a wide spectrum within palliative care, therefore care should accordingly be holistic and individual. It’s also imperative to discuss a patient’s preferred place of care and preferred place of death as part of the holistic assessment and Advance Care Planning, you may find the 5 Stages of Grief (Denial, Anger, Bargaining, Depression and Acceptance) by Elisabeth Kubler-Ross a useful resource as a framework to understand the grieving process.

Despite a life limiting metastatic cancer diagnosis there can still be treatment options sometimes this will include palliative intervention such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy and also surgeries. Sometimes hormone therapies or receptor specific SACT (for example, Trastuzumab (Herceptin) in HER2 positive breast cancer). In these cases the aim will be to prolong life and improve remaining quality of life. In these cases it’s important for the medical team proposing the treatment to have sensitive but frank discussions with the patient to ensure there are no misconceptions around the purpose of any proposed treatments.

On that note, remember that oncology isn’t all doom and gloom!! You may find that some people may comment that they think it must be a depressing job but it can be a really rewarding  and holistic environment. Cancer is a very emotive topic and most people will have a friend or family member who has been affected by cancer.

Although the prevalence of cancer may have increased in recent years, the overall incidence of cancer has remained fairly stable . This is due to an increase in overall life expectancy leading to an older demographic of patients with cancer who, some decades ago would likely have died of other comorbidities. Recent developments in anti-cancer therapies has led to an increase in patients living with cancer, including conditions which would have historically been untreatable.

However, as with any areas of nursing there you will experience end of life care and care of the deceased person. It’s important to remember that most people have had very limited experience with death and it can sometimes be hard to process difficult situations that your peers can’t relate to.

Remember if you’re struggling or feeling upset it’s absolutely okay to take yourself off to a quiet corner to collect yourself if you need to, you are supernumerary! Don’t underestimate the benefits of a debrief with your preceptor and remember that your AA and the PEF are always available. If you want to talk to somebody out of office hours the Greater Manchester Nightline listening and information service is open from 8pm-8am during term time.

ECOG Performance Score

This grading tool is commonly used in all areas of oncology to assess disease progression and how this impact’s on a patient’s activities of daily living. Created by the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group, this 0-5 scale is something you will come across on any oncology placements, familiarising yourself with the descriptions of these categories will help you understand the impact of performance status on patient’s day to day experiences.

Grade 0 : Fully active, able to carry on all pre-disease performance without restriction
Grade 1 : Restricted in physically strenuous activity but ambulatory and able to carry out work of a light or sedentary nature, e.g., light house work, office work
Grade 2 : Ambulatory and capable of all self care but unable to carry out any work activities, up and about more than 50% of waking hours
Grade 3 : Capable of only limited self care, confined to bed or chair more than 50% of waking hours
Grade 4 : Completely disabled, cannot carry on any self care, totally confined to bed or chair
Grade 5 : Dead

Specific side effects are graded primarily using the CTCAE (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events) database. You can view this online here.

Neutropenic Sepsis

Neutropaenia is defined as having a Neutrophil count of less than 1. Chemotherapy can cause a drop in Neutrophil count, some patients on cytotoxic treatment will often be given a Granulocyte Stimulating Factor (GCSF) prophylactically to prevent neutropaenia.

Sepsis

The nadir (lowest point) of a patient’s white cell count usually occurs 7-10 days after chemotherapy. It’s important to consider this if you suspect sepsis.

Sepsis is a life threatening immune response to infection. Make sure that you escalate your concerns quickly to your mentor or another nurse if you think a patient may have sepsis, then they can begin treatment within the hour to improve outcomes. You can find out more information about the Sepsis Six campaign here: www.sepsistrust.org 

Metastatic Spinal Cord Compression

MSCC is an oncological emergency, it occurs when the pressure from a tumour site begins to compress the spinal cord and pain and neurological symptoms occur. This can happen from either a tumour within the CNS system growing within the spinal cord itself, from a tumour pressing on the vertebrae or from vertebrae collapsing and pressing upon the cord as they are weakened by metastases within the bone (bony metastases are more common in progressive Prostate, Lung and Breast cancers).

A ‘red flags’ early warning system has been developed to help quickly identify symptoms that can indicate cord compression. If you suspect a patient may have MSCC it’s important to act quickly and escalate this. The longer the symptoms occur the worse the prognosis can become for the patient and paralysis can become permanent.

MSCC

Its also important to consider these red flags in other clinical settings, such as A&E because ~25% of patients who present with MSCC do not have a diagnosed primary cancer. MSCC is a palliative condition as the cancer has already spread and mestastasized to other sites but it’s still really important to diagnose and treat to prevent paralysis. Even if patients aren’t having active treatment and are being managed with best supportive care, communication is really important as early treatment can mean improved quality of life, but patients may be reluctant to have a hospital admission if their preferred place of care at the end of life is at home.

Chemotherapy Induced Nausea & Vomiting

CINV is one of the main worries of patients undergoing chemotherapy. Since the first chemotherapy treatments were used in the 1940s, antiemetics have come along a long way. Although some drugs, such as Cisplatin, are still highly emetogenic, CINV is able to be better managed through use of anti-sickness medications since it was first licensed for use in 1979. However, due to the portrayal of chemotherapy in films and television, CINV is often a source of great worry for patients. Therefore it’s important to communicate well with your patients to provide information and reassurance and assess the effectiveness of their anti-emetics.

The main causes of CINV are sensitivity of the GI mucosal lining, stimulation of the 5HT3 receptors and direct stimulation of the chemoreceptor trigger zone, although some pathways are unknown. Some common categories of antiemetics are listed below: Most can be given by a variety of routes of administration, you can check these in the BNF, on Medusa (an online injectable medicines guide) or the electronic medicines compendium. 💉💊

Antihistamines- Cyclizine: H1 receptor antagonist. Main side effect: drowsiness but also has anti-muscarinic properties causing xerostomia (dry mouth), blurred vision and urinary retention. Most commonly used for drug induced N&V but also useful in pregnancy as cyclizine is non teratogenic. Hepatic metabolism, half life approximately 20 hours. Note that cyclizine and metoclopramide can’t be given together.

Antimuscarinic- Hyoscine: main mechanism of action is competitive inhibition at M1 receptor. Classic side effects of antimuscarinic drugs may be present- dry mouth, blurred vision and urinary retention.

Dopamine receptor antagonists- Domperidone:  A pure dopamine receptor antagonist, domperidone is often used for drug induced N&V and postoperatively. Metoclopramide: At higher doses metoclopramide also acts as a 5-HT receptor antagonist, this dual action makes it especially effective in CINV. It also has prokinetic effects- this means the rate of gastric emptying is increased alongside an increase in muscle tone of the gastroesophageal sphincter. They are both metabolised in the liver and have significant first pass metabolism.

5-HT receptor antagonsists- Ondansetron, Palonosetron, Granisetron: These drugs all act on 5HT3 receptors within the gut but also in the chemoreceptor trigger zone within the brain. Ondansetron is very commonly given with emetogenic chemotherapies, it’s important to note that for patients  over 65 years old, it should be administered in a bag infused over 15 mins to reduce risk of long Q-T syndrome but if given as a bolus should be given slowly to avoid vein irritation- “Zofran Flare”. Constipation is a common side effect. Palonosetron has similar properties but is longer lasting.

Neurokinin receptor antagonists- Aprepitant: Also known as Emend, it acts in the CNS on NK1 receptors. Aprepitant also has a secondary effect of increasing the effects of 5-HT receptor antagonists and corticosteroids. It is absorbed in the GI tract and metabolised by the liver. Aprepitant can interact with Warfarin, decreasing its effect.

Corticosteroids- Dexamethasone is an example of a corticosteroid given for CINV, in itself it only has weak antiemetic effects but has an additive effect when given with 5-HT receptor antagonists.

Other antiemetic compounds- There have also been recent studies into the use of herbal compounds such as ginger which was previously used in traditional Chinese medicine and mint to investigate their antiemetic properties.

You can browse other side effects from chemotherapy on the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) database.

 

Alternative Therapies

As with all nursing specialities, it’s important to ensure that we provide evidence based practice. Some patients may have queries about alternative therapies they have heard about. This can include things like dietary advice such as eating peach stone extract and can be quite dangerous (http://scienceblog.cancerresearchuk.org/2017/11/01/alternative-cancer-therapies-the-potential-impact-on-survival/). Even some over the counter remedies from health food shops, such as St. John’s wort, can have adverse interactions with medication so it’s always best for patient’s to consult their medical team before taking any additional supplements. Patients may also decline treatment in favour of unregulated and unproven therapies if they are worried about side effects, which reiterates the importance of effective and empathetic communication to address patients concerns and allow them to make informed decisions about their care.

The benefits of complementary therapy alongside conventional treatment should not be understated. Relaxation techniques can be beneficial for needlephobic patients during cannulation or for claustrophobic patients requiring scans or radiotherapy using molded masks. Research has also been done into acupuncture to help prevent peripheral neuropathy.


More topics to follow in An Introduction to Oncology: Part II, including an overview of Central Venous access devices, Scalp cooling, Immunotherapy treatments, Radiotherapy and other palliative care emergencies such as hypercalcaemia and arterial bleeds, watch this space! If there’s any other topics you’d like to be included or to give feedback, please use the form below!

Many thanks to my fantastic preceptor Laura for all your advice and support in helping me survive my first year being qualified and also for proofreading this article!


Useful Resources:

I’d also really recommend The Emperor of all Maladies: A biography of Cancer, by Siddhartha Mukherjee if you’re interested in oncology and a bookworm like me!

Glossary:

Adjuvant Therapy- Treatment (usually hormone therapy, chemotherapy or radiotherapy) given after surgery to ‘mop-up’ any remaining cancerous cells.

Brachytherapy- Radioactive seeds planted within a patients tumour, often used in prostate, cervical and endometrial cancers.

Cancer of Unknown Primary- See also Malignancy of Undefined Origin. True CUP is a very small percentage of MUO patients and has implications for treatment options if the primary cell line is unknown. Provisional CUP is the terminology used until a primary diagnosis has been made or confirmed as a true CUP.

Carcinogen- Substances known to cause cancer.

Carcinoma- Cancers which originate from tissues that line internal organs or the skin.

Clinical Oncology- Medical specialty focussing on the treatment of cancer with radiotherapy.

Concurrent- Different modalities of treatment given at the same time, for example chemotherapy alongside radiotherapy.

Cytotoxic- A substance toxic to living cells.

Emetogenic- A substance with the capacity to introduce vomiting (emesis) and nausea.

Dysplasia- The presence of an abnormal cell type, whose growth may be a precursor to cancerous tissue.

In Situ- A Carcinoma In Situ means the tumour has not spread from its original location.

Local Therapy- Treatment specific to the affected area such as surgery or radiotherapy.

Malignancy of Undefined Origin- The term used until a CUP is diagnosed or a primary site is discovered either through scans or histology from biopsies.

Medical Oncology- Medical specialty focussing on the treatment of cancer with drugs.

Metastasis- The spread of cancer from a primary site to other organs of the body either via the bloodstream or lymphatic system or through direct infiltration of adjacent organs by the tumour.

Neo-Adjuvant- Anti-Cancer therapies given to shrink the tumour initially before second stage treatment, usually surgery so the tumour is easier to resect.

SACT- Systemic Anti Cancer Therapy. This encompasses both chemotherapy and immunotherapy.

Sexual health healing: my elective placement in a GUM clinic

People coming to sexual health services experience a wide range of emotions; from embarrassment and fear to shame, guilt and anxiety. Sexual health carries with it some serious baggage and stigma that other areas of health don’t, but why is that? We wouldn’t think twice about going to the doctors for other health conditions, yet for some reason feel like we need to sneak in to sexual health clinics cloak and dagger, desperately hoping that we won’t be recognised. Sex is one of the most normal and natural things imaginable and anyone taking proactive steps to look after their sexual health should be celebrated…yet it is an area of health that many still find embarrassing or taboo.

This summer I completed a seven week placement in a sexual health clinic. I was excited to start as I’d always been interested in sexual health, but I must admit I was also a little nervous. Discussing sex openly and frankly can sometimes be just as intimidating for the healthcare professional as the patient – especially for an inexperienced student nurse still finding her feet! I’d be lying if I didn’t say I had the odd awkward moment over the placement – I struggle to hide my emotions and definitely felt my cheeks blush on the odd occasion during my first few solo interviews – but I soon realised that patients took their cues from me and the more relaxed I was, the more at ease they seemed. Before too long I was discussing STIs and sexual preferences as casually as the weather or what they had for tea last night. It was rewarding though, seeing people arrive at the clinic looking nervous, upset or worried and leave, free condoms in-hand, looking relieved and reassured. Along the way I also learnt a thing or two about the broad skills and expertise of sexual health nurses. Here is what I learned:

They can keep a secret

Confidentiality is one of the fundamental principles of sexual medicine. All staff working in sexual health, from consultants to student nurses, must sign a confidentiality agreement on entering the department. Of course this principle applies across all areas of healthcare, but it is particularly precious in sexual medicine where a patient’s right to privacy is central. Patients are not obliged to give their real name or date of birth when accessing sexual health services, nor will you hear a nurse calling people in the waiting room by their full name. Patient notes are also kept completely separate to other systems in the NHS and information will not be passed to services like GPs without consent or unless absolutely necessary. Explaining this to patients at the start of their appointment is often a good basis for gaining their trust and confidence.

They are expert communicators

Specialist sexual health and HIV nurses are incredibly skilled in taking detailed histories, asking the most personal questions imaginable, while remaining non-judgemental. Those questions can seem extremely intrusive and many people wonder why they need to share details of foreign partners, drug-taking or exactly what type of sex they had, so it takes a highly-skilled communicator to gather this information in a matter-of-fact, caring and non-judgmental way. As the interview unfolds, you can sometimes visibly see people recoil at the questions – in the cold light of day, sitting in a clinical room opposite someone in a uniform asking you about some of the most intimate parts of your life can be extremely difficult. Sexual health nurses completely understand that; they want to make the process as painless as possible, so will adopt many different communication strategies to put their patients at ease.

They know their stuff

The majority of sexual health and HIV nurses are specialists, with many years of experience and additional qualifications or training in sexual medicine. While in the past nurses in sexual health clinics would have assisted the doctors, they now work autonomously, often in nurse-led clinics. Nurses are the backbone of gentio-urinary medicine (GUM) clinics, working closely with consultants and experienced healthcare technicians. It’s a highly-skilled role that requires in-depth knowledge of sexual health conditions including their symptoms, methods of diagnosis and the latest evidence-based treatments, some of which they are now able to prescribe themselves under Patient Group Directives (PGDs). They work hand-in-hand with the doctors, undertaking the same assessments and doing the same tests and examinations. They also tend to be the clinicians delivering the treatments, from antibiotics or deep IM injections to wart freezing. They can do the whole lot.

They are un-shockable

Believe me, they have heard and seen it all. They are not there to judge your sexual behaviour and they don’t. They ask such personal questions because they want to make sure they carry out the most relevant tests, ensuring that they pick up any potential sexually transmitted infections (STI) someone could have been exposed to. Knowing whether someone has had foreign sexual parters or taken drugs, for example, can influence whether they decide to add in blood tests for hepatitis B and C. It pays to be as honest and frank as possible because it means that they do the full range of relevant tests.

They care about your physical AND mental health

WHO define sexual health as both absence of disease and healthy attitude towards sex. Sexual health nurses aren’t just concerned with detecting and treating STIs and giving out free condoms; they also play a therapeutic role, helping to ease anxieties and educate individuals about safe sex.  They can play a big part in helping someone overcome a bad sexual experience, often taking on a support and counselling role, especially nurses who choose to be sexual health advisors. Even for patinets who don’t specifically open up about their worries, you can see how a skilled sexual health nurse can make someone feel better just by being kind and matter-of-fact. Conditions like HIV of course sadly come with some of the greatest stigma and potential to impact mental health. HIV specialist nurses therefore are key in helping people come to terms with their diagnosis and cope with the wide range of emotions they may experience. They are often the first port of call for patients, sometimes being the only person that a patient has disclosed their HIV status to and feel comfortable phoning up to discuss worries and fears. As well as managing and monitoring their treatment HIV specialist nurses often become a trusted confidant, helping individuals to regain their confidence and self-worth or access local networks where they can access peer-support.

All-in-all, my placement in a sexual health clinic revealed the nursing role to be fascinating and rewarding. Sexual health nurses are a down-to-earth bunch who come into contact with people from all walks of life and use a broad range of advanced nursing skills to make a positive impact on physical and mental health. There’s a lot more to it than giving out free condoms, that’s for sure!

If you’re interested in sexual health, there are some brilliant websites out there. The British Association for Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH) guidelines for example share evidence-based clinical guidance for diagnosis and treatment of STIs. There are also some fantastic Manchester-based charities and organisations with a focus on improving sexual health such as Manchester Action on Street Health (MASH), a charity supporting women engaged with sex-work in Manchester; George House Trust, a charity supporting people living with HIV; LGBT Foundation, who offer sexual health testing for LGBT communities among many other services; and Sexpression Manchester a student-led organisation that offers informal sex and relationship training for young people.

Do you have an experience or reflection from placement that you would like to share with other student nurses and midwives? We think every student nurse or midwife has a unique and interesting perspective to offer so we are always keen to welcome new student bloggers to our team. If you have a story to share please do get in touch via our Facebook page @UoMPlacementProject or email studentnurseplacementproject@gmail.com. 

Mind your language!

I have realised as I’ve reviewed my previous blog posts that they tend to be quite personal. This post started as a very non-personal post but then, as I rolled ideas around my mind, I was reminded of times when the language used by Healthcare Professionals (HCP) had profound effects on me; some of these were positive and some negative but all forever imprinted in my memory and all influenced my experience of particular situations so, once again, this post will include my own experiences!

Late summer is a very bad time for me as in August 2013 my beautiful husband left me and our 3 sons and disappeared for 3 hauntingly long, soul crushing days when he made a serious attempt on his life only saved by the fact he was a pretty clean living fella with a nice healthy liver which did its job and chucked the massive paracetamol/ibuprofen overdose out of his body causing permanent liver damage but leaving him alive. This is not a post about mental health or suicide so the details of the lead up to this are not relevant here but suffice to say those 3 days were the worst of my life. I envisioned having to tell our 3 young sons their daddy was never coming home and having to raise my boys without my best friend and soul mate by my side. I imagined trying to support my in-laws with the grief of a second child having already buried their daughter…..they were the darkest 3 days of my life. The reason I am sharing this is to demonstrate the importance of the language we use as HCP.

By day 3 of this nightmare I was fully expecting a suicide note to turn up in the post, instead I got a phone call from a nurse from an emergency department in a hospital ‘down south’. She rang to tell me my husband had turned up and was being treated for the overdose he had taken. Now, the past 3 days had pretty much broken me but I did not break down in tears on the phone for many reasons, one of them being I was a practising counsellor at the time and was familiar with the language of attempted suicide and depression and I heard the news in a seemingly calm way. I then came off the phone and broke down both physically and emotionally.

My husband informed me, during a conversation much much later when we were debriefing during one of hundreds of conversations we had about that time that the nurse told him she thought I was “very clinical and a bit cold considering what she had just told me”. This stayed with me and continues to. I felt judged and misrepresented. I wanted to ring her and tell her that the reaction she heard was the result of 3 days without food and very little sleep, the reaction of a desperate wife and mother clinging to the only version of herself which was solid (the counsellor). I doubt that this particular nurse would even remember that conversation  a week later never mind 4 years later, but I remember it and my husband remembers it. He didn’t need to hear his wife had been clinical; he had no idea what sort of reception he was going to receive when we finally spoke to each other but what he needed to hear was that I had been informed and was ready to talk to him when he felt ready (which is actually exactly what I had said).

In situations of high emotion if you don’t know what to say, stick to the facts. Do not include your opinion and do not pass judgement.

So, onto another example of poor communication and the use of language.

During and after the traumatic delivery of my eldest son (for the midwives amongst us he was an undiagnosed malpresentation and a 36 hour induced labour ended with a rush to theatre for a trial forceps then emergency c-section). Things midwives said to me included:

During labour:

“what do you mean you aren’t getting the sensation to push, everyone gets the sensation to push” (not true, however I believed I was weird and not a ‘proper woman’ as I wasn’t ‘doing it’ right)

“you aren’t trying hard enough” (I used quite a lot of bad language at this point)

“Please try to push harder we need to see more maternal effort” (I cried)

post delivery:

Well, if you had pushed that baby out you’d have broken his neck” (Yes, yes this was actually said to me – his ear was the presenting part so it was probably true but I did not need to hear it)

“We took bets that you wouldn’t deliver him naturally” (so many things wrong with this sentence I do not know where to begin!)

So….therein ends a couple of examples of the poor language used to me personally during interactions with hcp (I have lots of examples from friends but I won’t share them as they are their stories!)

I now want to share some good examples of when HCP have used language in a positive way and how these have also stayed with me.

Following the above traumatic delivery my community midwife (who I respected so much she is a major reason I wanted to be a midwife and who I now know as a colleague) said to me “none of this was your fault. You did nothing wrong and nothing you did could have changed the outcome” (she knew I had wanted a homebirth with candles and words of love not theatre lights and words of terror). These words alone gave me permission to let myself off the hook for not being good enough to have a ‘normal’  birth.

*side note*  Please be mindful of using the word normal it can be very damaging. In terms of delivery I feel ‘vaginal delivery’ is enough without the word normal in front of it, its unnecessary. 

When my middle son broke his wrist and I waited 24 hours to take him to a&e because I thought it was just a ‘bit bruised’ I felt like the worst mother in the world and told anybody who would listen how awful I was and how could possibly I leave him 24 hours in pain poor little soul etc etc. A lovely radiographer took me to one side and whispered in my ear “I am a radiographer, my son broke his ankle and it took me 24 hours to bring him in; I thought he was just moaning”! Brilliant! Still makes me smile and instead of coming out of that situation feeling awful I came out feeling forgiven (although the middle boy still mentions it when he is wanting sympathy!)

All my sons have been in hospital for one reason or another most of which were when they were babies and the language used when communicating with me as a terrified mother has mostly been lovely and comforting (we will ignore the paediatrician who told me I would not be ‘allowed’ in the room when my 8 week old son was having a cannula sited in his head as we mothers tend to get ‘hysterical’ AND the paediatrician who looked at the 90ml bottle of breastmilk it had taken me AGES to express and said “is that all you’ve managed?”……we shall ignore them!!!!).

But this is what I want to leave you with (and something I remind myself of when working with women and their families)…

We may not remember all the people we work with and support or all the things we say but they remember us and they remember what we have said.

…………………….Years and years later.

Ask your friends and family about the midwife who delivered their babies….ask them what she was like (my Nana,at aged 95, could still remember the midwife telling her to stop screaming when she was delivering my 11lb mother as she may disturb the neighbours!).

Ask your friends and relatives about their GP and the things they have said to them over the years,  or the nurse who looked after them when they had their tonsils out when they were 7 years old (“eat the cornflakes or your mummy won’t be able to come and see you” ….I realise I have not had great experiences with HCP!!!!); ask them about the student midwife who took them to one side when their wife was haemorrhaging post delivery and explained who all the scary people who had just rushed into the room were and what they were doing; ask them about the consultant who told them there was nothing more they could do for their beloved dad; ask them about the importance of language and words.

Also, don’t lose sight of the influence of non-verbal communication: our body language speaks VOLUMES. Being clinically good is fundamental to being an effective HCP but being kind and respectful ensures the experience of the people we care for is remembered for the right reasons not the wrong reasons.

What we say matters. It MATTERS. If we are having a bad day and we are a bit too blunt with our language or we are too harassed to sit down and explain a procedure or we are tired and turn a blind eye to somebody you know is on the verge of tears and needs a friendly ear…..these things matter. Of course we have bad days but share these with your colleagues and friends; try really really hard to not let this influence the experience of the people we care for as they are mostly vulnerable and usually scared.

Thank you x

 

 

 

International #hellomynameis Day

July 23rd marks International #hellomynameis day. The #hellomynameis campaign was started by Dr Kate Granger MBE, a lady who set up a campaign in August 2013 using social media after receiving treatment in hospital for terminal cancer and realising that not all of the staff helping to support her introduced themselves. The campaign has raised awareness about the importance of healthcare professionals telling service users their name and role to help improve communication and increase the quality of patient care. The 23rd of July sadly marks the anniversary of Kate’s passing, though her husband Chris Pointon continues to travel the world delivering talks about Kate’s story and how we as healthcare professionals can improve people’s experiences of being cared for.

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Hello, my name is Abbie and I am a student mental health nurse. As I am a couple of weeks away from the end of my first year I have had lots of contact with service users on practice placements so I’ve been able to get a flavour of how much of a difference introductions can make from a professional perspective. From a personal perspective when I’ve been treated myself and accompanying loved ones to the hospital or the doctors I’ve witnessed professionals assessing not just the physical health but also the personal thoughts and feelings (mental health assessments are very thorough – see here) of people without telling them their name. Not doing so can put up a barrier to communication as the service user may feel awkward and uncomfortable with disclosing very sensitive information that they may previously have never shared with anybody before to a nameless stranger. A simple introduction can make the service user feel more valued and willing to talk about things like what they’ve been experiencing and what they wish to gain from treatment, which helps professionals deliver person-centred care that is tailored to each individual’s needs. Kate’s #hellomynameis campaign strives to improve patient experiences and aligns with the 6 Cs, values underpinning effective nursing practice that were set out in Compassion in Practice: Evidencing the Impact (2016).

6csSome University of Manchester students find themselves on placement within the Tameside and Glossop Integrated Care NHS Foundation Trust, which is where a number of nurses dubbed ‘Kate Granger nurses’ are the first in the UK to have been appointed. Kate Granger nurses will wear special identifiable badges and aim to encourage staff members in the trust to demonstrate effective communication and uphold the standards of compassionate care that Kate and her husband Chris have spent years campaigning for.

Searching #hellomynameis online brings up a wealth of posts showing healthcare professionals and service users pledging their support for the campaign. Visit the campaign’s website to see what events Kate’s husband is attending and find out more about how you can get involved.

 

Handling complaints: what I never learnt as a waitress

I have never been good at receiving complaints. Before I started my nursing degree, I worked as a waitress for 5 years. It was not uncommon to deal with customer complaints on a daily basis, and I would always just say “I’m really sorry about that. I’ll speak to my manager” which was always a fail safe. 98% of the time, the customer didn’t want to speak to me anyway!

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Accurate picture of me listening to customer complaints

But that changed when I started my nursing. Suddenly, whilst trying to make small talk with patients, I was being confronted with complaints about care they had received in the past or at that very moment. I couldn’t get away with my usual spiel because care complaints are more specific, more personal. You have to say something, and sorry doesn’t quite cut it.

I remember, very vividly, the first time I saw a nurse deal with a complaint efficiently. The patient in question was raising her concerns about the referral system for district nurse visits after a stay in hospital. Her care had been delayed due to this. The nurse I was working with listened to her very carefully, occasionally (when appropriate) asked for more detail and did not seem flustered at all. She then thanked the patient, said she would follow this up but urged her to voice her complaint at PALS.

PALS stands for Patient Advice and Liaison Service. It is confidential, and designed to provide support for patients, relatives and carers.

I was amazed at how calmly the whole situation went. Although the patient was upset initially, she was clearly at ease by the end of the visit, and I felt it was due to her being able to voice her opinion. And she was actively encouraged to talk about her concerns as Image result for complaintsit helps the NHS grow as an organisation! And it inspired me!

Since this event, I feel as though I have been inundated with patient complaints. Sometimes I feel as if there is a secret sign on my head that says please voice your thoughts at me!. I have now had endless practice at being calm and friendly, with some situations leading to me having to be a little firm (I will not be shouted at). I find that listening a lot, speaking barely at all, seems to work. Asking them to expand, answering questions when needed, and most importantly not denying their claims. It is extremely important, I think, to acknowledge that not every care interaction is perfect or goes to plan. We must embrace feedback, negative or not! Whether it comes from a staff member, a patient or a relative; complaints should be listened to!

Always speak to your mentor or a staff member about a patient’s complaints. 

Be Resilient, Stay Brilliant

Student nursing takes many different skills: patience, compassion, dedication, the ability to plaster a smile on your face for 12 hours even when you’re exhausted, and more. But there is one skill I never thought would be so useful; resilience!

Resilience is when you’ve made a simple mistake and you can feel the embarrassment creeping up, but you carry on caring and learning. It’s what makes you keep going when someone doubts your ability. It is what you use to take in constructive (but sometimes not!) criticism on an essay, a presentation or an act of care. Resilience is the ability to bounce back!

I didn’t realize how important resilience was until I was having an incredibly busy day on my last placement on an acute medical ward. Myself and my mentor had ended up with a few very poorly patients, an astonishing amount of paperwork, delayed transport for a patient and some awkward available beds mix ups. To help out, I offered to call a unit an explain that patient they were transferring to us needed to be delayed slightly, due to late transport. I was greeted with what I describe as understandable anger and frustration. I spoke as calmly as possible, explaining that we were sorting the situation and that the patient would not be delayed much longer. The nurse I spoke to continued to berate me on the phone, and eventually hung up.

Luckily, within 10 minutes, we had managed to sort the entire situation out. No more angry phone calls for the day! I spoke to my mentor about what had happened, and she reassured me that it was just a tough situation and not to take it to heart. I still get slightly annoyed when I think back, but I have to remind myself that we are all just looking out for our patients. Sometimes that comes across in different ways! I think if I was a qualified nurse, I would have had a better understanding of how to deal with the situation. But I know for sure that I will not forget this phone call.

Remember; if you have experienced a situation like mine, please talk to someone about it! Whether it is your mentor, a fellow student, the PEF, your AA, friend, family dog etc. Difficult situations should be discussed, and you are allowed to vent. I can highly recommend writing a reflection about it!

Have you had any moments of resilience? Let us know in the comments, or on Facebook/Twitter. Or, if you’re feeling creative, write us a blog post!